Add DOI with refrence

I work with style for specific journal. The problem is DOI did not appear however every article has DOI and i check the style editor for my journal style already take into account the DOI. I found this
But i do not why did not appear
  • which citation style are you using?
  • style for Water Journal
  • Hi,
    Not sure if I understand the problem correctly, but the style for the journal "Water" is an MDPI journal and hence the style is a dependent style to the mdpi.csl style file.
    MDPI do take care of their own citation style we have on the repository, regularly update it and hence should be giving you the correct reference output.
  • And MDPI specifically does not want the DOI included in references.
  • The output reference is exactly MDPI but my problem the the output refrence does not include DOI
    The instruction of MDPI TEMPELATE is
    We recommend preparing the references with a bibliography software package, such as EndNote, ReferenceManager or Zotero to avoid typing mistakes and duplicated references. Include the digital object identifier (DOI) for all references where available
  • I would ask for clarification from the publisher if they want DOI or not. They explicitly removed the DOI from their CSL style several months ago.
  • Thanks I will ask
  • edited March 14, 2023
    As the Zotero file has not been modified so that MDPI adds the DOI (actually, it is very simple to do so), I have modified the style "multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute" ( with the DOI detection and I called it "multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute_plus_doi".

    I would like to share it, but I don't know how to do it.

    If you want to make your citation styles, this web allows modifying in a relatively easy way

    Update 23-03-14:
    If anyone needs it, I have made a csl file alternative with DOI detection.

    MDPI asked for the DOI some months ago, so I had to make it. Maybe, his policy has been updated.
  • You can post it to github and share it here if you like. As I said above, the official style could easily be updated if we got confirmation from the publisher that they wanted DOIs included. Can you contact MDPI for clarification?
  • edited October 22, 2019
    Thank you
  • I have problem that beside citation year in some cases, there is a letter like the following example how can i solve it
    (Salem et al. 2019a)
  • That is disambiguating the reference from another "Salem et al. 2019" reference in your paper. If you are actually citing two different papers, that would be correct formatting. If you are only intended to cite one paper, then you have citation to two duplicate items in your document. Go through your document and replace all of the citations to the "2019a" or "2019b" versions of the paper with just one of them, then click the Refresh button in the Zotero tab in Word.
  • Thank You for your respond

    Yes i have two different papers for (salem et al 2019)
  • Okay, then 2019a and 2019b would be correct for these.
  • edited March 14, 2023
    If anyone needs it, I have made a csl file alternative with DOI detection.

    MDPI asked for the DOI some months ago, so I had to make it. Maybe, his policy has been updated.
  • So MDPI has actually indicated that the DOI should be included? If so, we can update the official style.
  • edited December 22, 2019
    MDPI update the style(s) themselves from what I understand.
    They specifically took the DOI out end of 2018:
  • I think the problem is still there because many people visit my repository daily.
  • MDPI does not require DOIs in its citation style. The style in the CSL without the repository is correct.
  • But they use them in "print" and say they are highly encouraged, so I'd be inclined to put them back in?
  • @bwiernik you're right. Thanks for the explanation, I think in that case, if MDPI doesn't make it mandatory it is preferable to use the official CSL file or my modification ( The web page says:

    "**DOI numbers (Digital Object Identifier) are not mandatory but highly encouraged**. The bibliography software package EndNote, Zotero, Mendeley, Reference Manager are recommended."

    Anyway, there's some irony because they recommend Zotero after talking about DOI, but there's no official DOI alternative for MDPI.

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