How to import Endnote Citation Style to Zotero???


i have got a Endnote Citation Style (.ens) that i would like to use in Zotero.

Is there a way to convert .ens to .csl? Or to import directly into Zotero??


  • you can't convert - you can in theory use directly (in the Cite tab of the prefences), but in practice that works so poorly that it's usually not worth it and due to legal issue this isn't being developed nor supported anymore - you're better of adapting a csl style.
  • Well that sucks. I'm glad Zotero pulled the plug when they did though, I enjoy their service :).

    Anyone have any reading information about citation manager interoperability and legalities? I'm still a novice programmer, but there must be a way to extract the .ens style, and then just get Zotero to interpret it?

    I'm sure it's more complicated than I've put it, but I'd be happy to read about it.

    For some strange reason, a lecturer has made it compulsory to use the citation style that he wants us to - that he has 'made up'. Essentially it's just Harvard style, but reduced use of punctuation between authors, i.e.:
    Smith W, Streisand B, ....
    instead of...
    Smith. W., Streisand. B,...
    Crazy I know. Thanks.

  • it's not trivial - you would need to reverse engineer the .ens format which Endnote certainly never intended for other programs to read. Zotero essentially did that (I believe - I was in no way involved with that) but even with that the results were rather unsatisfactory, so even though Zotero was legally almost certainly in the right (the lawsuit was thrown out on a technicality, so we don't know for sure), it wasn't worth the hassle to put any work into maintaining .ens import - especially now that CSL is rapidly becoming the new standard for citation styles - all newer software relies on CSL styles.

    As for your specific issue - it's really not that hard to adjust such small things in a style yourself. See here in general:
    and specifically change initialize-with=". " and sort-separator in the author macro.
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